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英语国家社会与文化要点  

2011-12-16 09:09:33|  分类: 学习资讯 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1  .J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur is the first important American author to ask the question, "What is an American? ”
He is a new man, leaving behind all his ancient prejudices and receives new manners from the new mode of life.
2  the concept  of  melting  pot
. It refers to a society with people of different cultures, races, and religions combined together to form a multi-ethnic society(多民族社会) and each group of people retain (保持)their own integrity(完整性) and flavor.
3.a  new  land
the  first  from Aisa  They are earliest settlers of America(美洲最早的定居者) and ancestors of Native Americans.(印第安人的祖先)
the  second form Europe and Afirica
3.Changes in the 16th and 17th Century
(1)the  Development of bourgeois and capitalism
(2)the  Renaissance
(3the  Religious Reformation
4.Martin Luther’s Belief
Man is born sinful. (Original Sin原罪)
Man have direct relation with God, not through Church or Pope.
The only guide to God is Bible.
Man can be saved by reading Bible.
5.Calvinism
John Calvin: French Protestant Reformer
Calvinism: 加尔文主义            
Total Depravity    完全堕落
Limited Atonement  有限拯救
Unconditional  Election  无条件选择
Hard work and get wealth
5.Henry  VIII and Church of England
6.The Settlement in Virginia
they named after their king  and begain to build a Jamestown. 
The colonists settled in Virginia and survived by imposing strict discipline on themselves and by transplanting tobacco into the colony of Virginia.(John rolfe was the first man to plant  tobacco)
7. Two Great Events in Virginia
In 1619, the settlers elected their delegates (代表)and set up the House of Burgesses (市民议会).
In1619,a Dutch ship sent twenty black people to Virginia as servants.
Starting points of American Democracy and Slavery System
8.Puritan New England
New England: the six states in Northeastern America.
Massachusetts马萨诸塞州, Connecticut,康涅狄格州,New Hampshire新罕布什尔州, Vermont佛蒙特州, Maine缅因, and Rhode Island罗德岛州
King henry VIII cut off the  political  relationship with Pope in Rome and  set up the Church of  England ,but there was reform in religious beliefs and pratices
9.Puritan Doctrines.
(1): God is incomprehensible to Man. (上帝不可知论)
(2):Human is predestined by God.  (人命天定论)
(3):Success of calling is sign of God’s elect.  (事业成功说)
(4):  Individual can contact God directly by Bible. (天人相通说)
10.Pilgrim Fathers (清教先驱)  Puritans in England
         Puritans in England were persecuted for their beliefs, and some fled to Holland.
         In Holland, they moved to North America to seek religious freedom on the Mayflower in 1620. Before landing on New England, they signed the Mayflower Compact (五月花公约)for the future civil government. Puritans in New England were called the Pilgrim Fathers.
11.Puritan Legacy
The influence of Puritanism on American culture
     Puritans have left rich cultural heritage to future Americans.
    The American values such as sense of mission to build “City Upon Hill”, individualism, hard work, respect of education owe very much to the Puritan beliefs.
12.Catholic Maryland
 The founder was the second Lord Baltimore, who carried out his father’s will to set up a colony in North America (in today’s Maryland) in 1632 and became the owner of the colony.
 He wished to introduce a feudal system similar to the manor system in Europe to his colony.
 because the wilderness of North America provided plenty of land while labor was scarce. 
It was impossible to have the feudal plan executed.
13.Quaker Pennsylvania
(1)Quakers were a group of Protestants. They believed that people could communicate with God because God’s divine light was in everyone’s heart. (2)They believed in God through faith without the help of church or priest. (3)Those religious beliefs taught them that people were born equal, and not sinful.(4) They worked hard and lived a simple life in order to please God.
14.The American Revolution(注意事件的先后顺序)
(1) In 1773, the “Boston Tea Party ” tossed British merchants’ tea into Boston harbor
(2)The Americans disobeyed the Intolerable Act passed by British Parliament and boycotted British trade.
(3)On April 19, 1775, the first shot was fired. The American war of Independence began. And it ended in 1781.
15  founding fathers
(1). George Washington(2).Thomas Jefferson (3)Benjamin Franklin (4)John Adams
16.The Articles of Confederation  (这是1777年11月国会通过的美国第一部宪法性文件,规定联合新独立的13个州的松散的邦联政府的职能.1787年美国制订联邦宪法,邦联随之终止).
17.Constitution
The Articles of Confederation failed. The Congress decided to hold a constitutional convention to revise the Articles of Confederation. The delegates from 12 states (Rhode Island refused to participated) gathered in Philadelphia in 1787 and end up in writing a new constitution and set a federal system with a strong central government.
18.The 3 branches of the U.S federal government
Three Fears
(1)New government may create tyranny.1.Checks and balances: set up three branches of government: executive, judicial and legislative.(三权分立制)
(2)New government may take away powers of the states. Federal System: (联邦体制) powers are shared between federal and state government.
(3)New government may violate people’s rights.
Bill of Rights: (人权法案)guarantee the basic rights and freedom of people
19  Legislative Branch
House of Representatives:众议院
Membership is based on population. Each state has at least one representative.
Senate: 参议院(Senator)
Each state has Two Senators.
20 在美国法律草案如何变成法律
Major Functions of Congress: make laws
Bill is introduced in one chamber----studied by Special Committees---subjected to all members of chamber---passed by vote---subjected to another chamber
Conference Committee is needed when two chambers pass different versions of a bill.
The Act is then subjected to President to sign.
The President may veto it, but his veto can be “overridden” by 2/3majority in both chambers
21 Officials of Congress
Vice President of U.S. is President of Senate.(副总统即是参议院主席)
Vice President has no vote in Senate, except in a “tie”. (equal vote)
Speakers of the House (众议院议长) is leader of House of Representatives.
Speaker of the House is usually leader of major party in the House. 
22  Executive Branch
Head of executive branch is the President.
President is head of state, leader of all armed forces
23 Presidential Powers
Legislative Power :
Propose legislation to Congress
Veto bills passed by Congress
Judicial Powers:
Appoint federal judges, Supreme Court Judges (approved by Senate)
Give reprieve and pardon.
Foreign Affairs:
Appoint ambassadors (approved by Senate)
Assisted by Secretary of State, manage all foreign affairs and form foreign policy
Executive Powers :
chief duty of President
“take care that law be faithfully executed”
Issue regulations and “executive orders”
Commander-in-chief of armed forces
Appoint senior officials of executive branches. (approved by Senate)
24 Supreme Court: highest court of U. S.
25 Judicial Branch
Supreme Court
Function:
1. Settle disputes about interpretations ofhe laws and Constitution.(司法解释权)
2. Judge if laws and executive actions violate Constitution.(判断违宪权)
3. Settle appeals from lower courts. (judicial review,司法复审权)
26 .America after Revolution was an “Agricultural Country”, with 90% people employed in farming. (判断题,美国在独立战争之后还是一个农业国家)
27 Development of American Industry
First Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton established a protective Tariff, to encourage American industry.
1776-1860, Industrial Revolution spread into US and changed American industry.

First Development :
Introduction of factory system. (工厂体系)The first American factory is a cotton textile mill, established in 1793 by Samuel Slater.
Second Development :
 “American system” of mass production
(美国式的大规模生产)
1. Eli Whitney: invent Cotton Gin(轧棉机)
                        invent interchangeable parts
                        (standardized parts)(标准件)
2. Henry Ford: invent “moving assemble line”
 Result:  Mass production increased efficiency, lowered costs and prices.
Third Development :
 Application of new technology(应用新科技)
The Fourth Development :
   New Form of Business(新商业组织形式)
(National Bank and Corporation)
1.  in 1863,national banking system was set up with standard paper money.
 2.  advantages of Corporation:
     a: more efficient to raise money.(更容易筹资)
     b: responsible for limited debts liability
       (只负有限债务责任
The Fifth Development :
     Construction of Railroad.
In 1862, Congress approved Transcontinental railroad.
28
Result of Industrial Revolution:
1. In 1890, industrial output exceeded farming output in America.
2. In 1913, 1/3 of world’s industrial production was made in U. S. A.
3. After World War Two, United States had the greatest productive capacity in the world.
29 Free Enterprise
Free Enterprise: economic freedom of capitalism 资本主义的自由经济
Stock Exchange Market(股票交易市场)
The most famous one is New York Stock  Exchange in Wall Street of New York City.
30 Root of Affluence
1. vast dimension and ample natural resources.(地大物博)
2. enough people as labor and consumer.
  (人力资源丰富)
3. People’s mobility and entrepreneurial spirit.(人口流动性大,具有创业精神)
4. institutional factors: limited Governmental interference. (政府干预少)
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